Course Content
KCP 1 – Obesity (Lectures)
This covers all the lecture content from the key clinical problem "Obesity" for cellular response 3.
Cellular Response 3
About Lesson


  • Describe the anatomical location of the heart?

    Located in the mediastinum surrounded by pericardium

Ribs , Joints and Lines

  • Name the 2 ends of the clavicles and various parts of the sternum and their joints?

    Jugular Notch / Suprasternal Notch, Sternal Angle, Xiphi-sternal joint, Manubrium, Body, Xiphoid Process

    • Answer

  • How does the sternal angle form? another name?

    Joint between manubrium and body (one of them is in an angle towards the other)

    Manubrium Sternal Angle

  • Name the lines A, B, C and XY

    A: Mid sternal line

    B: Left Mid clavicular line

    C: Left Lateral Sternal Line

    XY: Left Parasternal line



  • What are the various layers of the pericardium and some properties / functions?

    1. Fibrous ⇒ tough and thick external layer
    2. Serous ⇒ relatively thin layer
      1. Outer Parietal Layer ⇒ continuous with fibrous pericardium
      2. Inner Visceral Layer ⇒ together with outer layer of the heart (epicardium)

  • What is the space between the inner visceral layer and outer parietal layer called? and its function?

    Pericardial cavity ⇒ filled with serous fluid for lubrication

  • One pathological condition to arise from the space?

    1. Pericardial effusion ⇒ excess fluid build up in the pericardial cavity
  • Which nerve supplies the innermost layer?

    Sympathetic and Parasympathetic stimulation ⇒ more or less for the heart

  • What nerve supplies the other 3 layers and which plexus does it originate from?

    Phrenic nerve from cervical plexus


  • What are the various functions of the pericardium? x4
    1. Lubrication
    2. Fixation of the heart ⇒ pericardium connected to diaphragm and outer layer of some major vessels
    3. Prevents infections from getting to the heart
    4. Prevent over-expansion of the heart

Surface Anatomy

Borders of the Heart

  • What is the pre-cordium?

    Area of the ribs that heart is found within

  • Describe the borders of the heart and their associated parts?

  • What is felt at the joining point of the inferior border and left border? why is it important?

    Apex beat ⇒ max pulsation of the heart

Parts of the Heart

Valves and Auscultation

  • Name the 4 heart sounds that can be heard?





  • State the locations of the 4 valves?

    1. Aortic: Right 2nd intercostal space along parasternal line
    2. Tricuspid:
    3. Mitral: Left 5th intercostal space along mid clavicular line
    4. Pulmonary: left 2nd intercostal space along parasternal line
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