Describe the anatomical location of the heart?
Located in the mediastinum surrounded by pericardium
Ribs , Joints and Lines
Name the 2 ends of the clavicles and various parts of the sternum and their joints?
Jugular Notch / Suprasternal Notch, Sternal Angle, Xiphi-sternal joint, Manubrium, Body, Xiphoid Process
How does the sternal angle form? another name?
Joint between manubrium and body (one of them is in an angle towards the other)
Manubrium Sternal Angle
Name the lines A, B, C and XY
A: Mid sternal line
B: Left Mid clavicular line
C: Left Lateral Sternal Line
XY: Left Parasternal line
What are the various layers of the pericardium and some properties / functions?
- Fibrous ⇒ tough and thick external layer
- Serous ⇒ relatively thin layer
- Outer Parietal Layer ⇒ continuous with fibrous pericardium
- Inner Visceral Layer ⇒ together with outer layer of the heart (epicardium)
What is the space between the inner visceral layer and outer parietal layer called? and its function?
Pericardial cavity ⇒ filled with serous fluid for lubrication
One pathological condition to arise from the space?
- Pericardial effusion ⇒ excess fluid build up in the pericardial cavity
Which nerve supplies the innermost layer?
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic stimulation ⇒ more or less for the heart
What nerve supplies the other 3 layers and which plexus does it originate from?
Phrenic nerve from cervical plexus
- What are the various functions of the pericardium? x4
- Fixation of the heart ⇒ pericardium connected to diaphragm and outer layer of some major vessels
- Prevents infections from getting to the heart
- Prevent over-expansion of the heart
Borders of the Heart
What is the pre-cordium?
Area of the ribs that heart is found within
Describe the borders of the heart and their associated parts?
What is felt at the joining point of the inferior border and left border? why is it important?
Apex beat ⇒ max pulsation of the heart
Parts of the Heart
Valves and Auscultation
Name the 4 heart sounds that can be heard?
State the locations of the 4 valves?
- Aortic: Right 2nd intercostal space along parasternal line
- Mitral: Left 5th intercostal space along mid clavicular line
- Pulmonary: left 2nd intercostal space along parasternal line